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Emerging Technologies: This mainly includes membrane processes, micro or radio frequency waves, pulsating method, inductive and resistive heating methods, ultrasonic, ultraviolet light and other lighting technologies, high-pressure processes, etc. In addition to the reduction of thermal energy consumption, the use of ET also for reduction of the process temperature levels are significant. As a result, thermal degradation of the product due to high temperatures and long processing times can be prevented. By lowering the temperature level , an improved solar thermal integration can be further achieved, since the panels work more efficiently at lower temperatures.
ET defines those technologies that do not correspond to the state of the art and have not yet reached market maturity for specifically examined applications, but can be where there is sufficient based on data from laboratory and pilot plants .There is great potential for for this work in the future for widespread industrial applications primarily due to higher energy efficiency,higher process reliability and due to an improvement in product quality. In order to follow a holistic approach to the ET also offers good possibilities for the integration of renewable energy sources.
- Categorization of ET
Pereira et al takes a categorization of ET by thermal and non-thermal technologies. The non-thermal ET is technologies without the action of thermal energy to reach the "target" of the process (concentration, drying, pasteurization or sterilization) and thereby to overcome the limiting factors of the conventional thermal process. These include, for example, some membrane separation process (osmotic membrane distillation, reverse osmosis, microfiltration or ultrafiltration, etc.) for the concentration of food or the high-pressure pasteurization process.
The thermal ET is technologies that produce or use thermal energy in order to achieve the goal of the process . These include, inter alia, also microwaves while generated by electric power, but their use is accompanied by the generation of thermal energy and thus heating of the product. In the thermal ET, a further subdivision could be identified. Those technologies that improve the limiting factors (eg heat transfer) and those technologies that achieve overcoming the limiting factors. During the drying process, novel thermal dryer, eg structured beds , only to improve the heat transfer by the creation of a larger surface, while through the use of microwaves, in which the water is evaporated in the inside of the product and is pressed by the increasing internal vapor pressure of the water from the inside to the outside , the limiting factors can be completely overcome.
- Figure 1 Overview of Emerging Technologies
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